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Evidence-Based Health Care

Find answers to the question "What works?" in medical and health care.

About Evidence-Based Practice

"EBP [Evidence Based Practice] is a process used to review, analyze, and translate the latest scientific evidence. The goal is to quickly incorporate the best available research, along with clinical experience and patient preference, into clinical practice, so nurses can make informed patient-care decisions" (Johns Hopkins Center for Nursing Inquiry). 

The core of EBP is ensuring that healthcare providers are able to find, evaluate, and use the best current evidence for the patient they're working with. Providers need to be able to find the best evidence not just for the diagnosis, but for the specific patient or population that may require treatment. 

Evidence-based practice flowchart



From BMJ Best Practice:

The PICO (Population, Intervention, Comparator and Outcomes) model captures the key elements and is a good strategy to provide answerable questions.

Population: who are the relevant patients or the target audience for the problem being addressed?
     Example: In women with non-tubal infertility

Intervention: what intervention is being considered?
    Example: …would intrauterine insemination…

Comparator: what is the main comparator to the intervention that you want to assess?
     Example: …when compared with fallopian tube sperm perfusion…

Outcomes: what are the consequences of the interventions for the patient? Or what are the main outcomes of interest to the patient or decision maker?
     Example: …lead to higher live birth rates with no increase in multiple pregnancy, miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy rates?


How to clarify a clinical question. (n.d.). BMJ Best Practice. Retrieved October 26, 2022, from


From "Formulating the Evidence Based Practice Question":

Setting: What is the context for the question? The research evidence should reflect the context or the research findings may not be transferable.

Perspective: Who are the users, potential users, or stakeholders of the service?

Intervention: What is being done for the users, potential users, or stakeholders?

Comparison: What are the alternatives? An alternative might maintain the status quo and change nothing.

Evaluation: What measurement will determine the intervention’s success? In other words, what is the result?

Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the Evidence Based Practice Question: A Review of the Frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 6(2), Article 2.



From "How CLIP became ECLIPSE":

Expectation—what does the search requester want the information for (the original ‘I’s)?
Client Group
Impact: what is the change in the service, if any, which is being looked for? What would constitute success? How is this being measured?
Service: for which service are you looking for information? For example, outpatient services, nurse-led clinics, intermediate care

Wildridge, V., & Bell, L. (2002). How CLIP became ECLIPSE: A mnemonic to assist in searching for health policy/management information. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 19(2), 113–115.

Online Evidence-Based Point-of-Care Summaries

EBP Internet Resources

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