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Citation Management Applications

Citation Management Applications

There are some free citation management software applications that assist with organizing and exporting citations. You can learn more about those applications on this WSU guide. Such applications although helpful, do operate on a garbage in/garbage out principal. Those applications are:



EndNote (limited use for free subscription) 

About APA/ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation Styles

As of 2021, ASA/CSSA/SSSA follow the APA citation style.

Unless otherwise noted, images of citations on this page come from the ASA/CSA/SSSA style manual:

Citation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manualCitation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manual

In-Text Citations

In-text citations are citations that occur within the body of your paper. 

APA/ASA/CSSA/SSSA citation styles all use the author-year notation system. Below are some examples.

Single author

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos, 2015).

Ramos (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

Two authors

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos & Wilson, 2015).

Ramos and Wilson (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

Three or more authors

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos et al., 2015).

Ramos et al. (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

More than two studies cited

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos and Wilson, 2015; Martinez, 2019).

Ramos and Wilson (2015) and Martinez (2019) both found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

If citing a specific page instead instead of an entire chapter or article

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos, 2015, p. 42).

Ramos (2015, p. 42) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

Creating a Reference List

The reference list (or reference section) of your paper contains a list of all of the resources that you cited. Here's some things to keep in mind when creating a reference list:

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the last name of authors.
    • In the reference list itself, give the names of all authors. Optionally, if the paper has more than six authors, the rest may be abbreviated to 'et al.'
  • Two or more articles by the same author (or authors) are listed chronologically.


Citing Journals

Example of Journal Article Citations (with and without DOI)

Citing Journals in ASA/CSA/SSSA


Schematic of a Journal Article Citation

ASA/CSSA/SSSA diagram of journal citation

Citing Magazine Articles

ASA citation of magazine


Citing Books, Bulletins, or Reports

Examples of Book, Bulletin, and Report Citations

ASA book citation example


Schematic of a Book, Bulletin, or Report Citation 

ASA diagram of book citation


Citing Chapters Within Edited Books, Bulletins, and Reports

Examples of Citing Individual Chapters within an Edited Book

Citing a chapter within a book


Schematic of a Chapter Citation Within a Book, Bulletin, or Report

Citing book chapters within ASA/CSSA/SSSA


Example of a Reference List Utilizing Multiple Types of Resources


American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) Citation Style

In Text-citations

ASHS is the citation method used within the popular journal HortScience.

ASHS uses the same in-text citation rules as ASA/CSSA/SSSA. See the examples from above for in-text citation help.

Creating a reference section in ASHS

Citing Journal Articles in ASHS

ASHS Journal Citation Example

Citing Books in ASHS

Citing Books in ASHS Examples

More Reference Section Examples 

Reference section examples in ASHS

Examples taken from the the ASHS Style Guide (see pages starting at #87 in PDF)

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