Skip to Main Content

Crop / Soil Sci 506: Research Presentations

Crop / Soil Sci 506 Library Research Guide

About APA/ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation Style

As of 2021, ASA/CSSA/SSSA citations all follow the APA citation style.

APA does not have an explicit way to cite images in presentation software such as PowerPoint. If you are following strict APA guidelines, you would treat an image like a figure.

To learn more about APA and how to cite figures see the following:

- WSU Libraries APA Quick Cite Guide

- The George Washington University Libraries' APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Figures


Unless otherwise noted, all images on this page come from the ASA/CSA/SSSA style manual:

Citation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manualCitation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manual

Examples of Citing Images in PowerPoint Slides


Example(s) of How to Cite an Image in APA Within Your PowerPoint Presentation:


This example is the most technically correct way to cite an image in APA within your PowerPoint slides.

APA Citation Example of PowerPoint Slide


Explanation of citation:

Figure number. Description of image.  Adapted from “Name of image” (note: since you will probably be resizing the image, it will be "adapted" from its original source). by Author first initial. Author last name, Year of creation, Source of image. URL (where the image came from). Copyright information.



This example is technically for citing an image within your paper. Although it is not technically correct, it is utilized fairly often and cleaner than the example from above.

Example #2 of APA citation of image

APA Reference Section ExampleReference Section of APA Example

For more information regarding how to cite images in APA (as you would in a paper) see the box below.



Although not technically correct, you could use a combination of these two methods. Because there aren't well defined rules regarding citing images within a PowerPoint presentation you do have some flexibility. Just make sure that you are being consistent.  Here's an example of a combination of the two methods from above.

Other citation method example

Other citation method example reference section



Another option, which again, is not technically correct is to have the full APA citation under your image

APA citation example #4

Citing Images (APA Reference Section)

Citing an Image & Using a Reference Section 


Cite the image as in the example below:

Horticulture students studying tree roots

(Huckle, 1921)


In your reference section, write:

Last Name, Initials. (Date created). Image title italicized [Media type] Name of museum, City, State

     Abbreviation, Country of museum. URL


Huckle, M.S. (1921). Horticulture students studying tree roots. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State

    University, Pullman, WA, United 



Citing an Image from a Website - Author is Not Listed

 Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser, Washington

(Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser, Washington, 1959)


Title of image [Media type]. (Date created). Title of website. URL


 Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser. (1959). [Photograph]. The Washington Rural Heritage Collection. 





In-Text Citations (General)

In-text citations are citations that occur within the body of your paper. 

Single author

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos, 2015).

Ramos (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

Two authors

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos and Wilson, 2015).

Ramos and Wilson (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

More than two authors 

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos et al., 2015).

Ramos et al. (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

More than two studies cited

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos and Wilson, 2015; Martinez, 2019).

Ramos and Wilson (2015) and Martinez (2019) both found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

If citing a specific page instead instead of an entire chapter or article

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos, 2015, p. 42).

Ramos (2015, p. 42) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.


Creating a Reference List (For Journals, Books, Reports, etc.)

The reference list (or reference section) of your paper contains a list of all of the resources that you cited. Here's some things to keep in mind when creating a reference list:

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the last name of authors.
    • In the reference list itself, give the names of all authors. Optionally, if the paper has more than six authors, the rest may be abbreviated to 'et al.'
  • Two or more articles by the same author (or authors) are listed chronologically.


Citing Journals

Example of Journal Article Citations (with and without DOI)

Citing Journals in ASA/CSA/SSSA


Schematic of a Journal Article Citation

ASA/CSSA/SSSA diagram of journal citation

Citing Magazine Articles

ASA citation of magazine


Citing Books, Bulletins, or Reports

Examples of Book, Bulletin, and Report Citations

ASA book citation example


Schematic of a Book, Bulletin, or Report Citation 

ASA diagram of book citation


Citing Chapters Within Edited Books, Bulletins, and Reports

Examples of Citing Individual Chapters within an Edited Book

Citing a chapter within a book


Schematic of a Chapter Citation Within a Book, Bulletin, or Report

Citing book chapters within ASA/CSSA/SSSA


Example of a Reference List Utilizing Multiple Types of Resources


WSU Libraries, PO Box 645610, Washington State University, Pullman WA 99164-5610, 509-335-9671, Contact Us