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Crop / Soil Sci 506: Research Presentations

Crop / Soil Sci 506 Library Research Guide

About APA/ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation Style

As of 2021, ASA/CSSA/SSSA citations all follow the APA citation style.

APA does not have an explicit way to cite images in presentation software such as PowerPoint. If you are following strict APA guidelines, you would treat an image like a figure.

To learn more about APA and how to cite figures see the following:

- WSU Libraries APA Quick Cite Guide

- The George Washington University Libraries' APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Figures


Unless otherwise noted, all images on this page come from the ASA/CSA/SSSA style manual:

Citation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manualCitation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manual

Examples of Citing Images in PowerPoint Slides


Example(s) of How to Cite an Image in APA Within Your PowerPoint Presentation:



Explanation of standard image citation in APA:

Figure number. Description of image.  Adapted from “Name of image” (note: since you will probably be resizing the image, it will be "adapted" from its original source). by Author first initial. Author last name, Year of creation, Source of image. URL (where the image came from). Copyright information.




This example is the most technically correct way to cite an image in APA within your PowerPoint slides. It can make your slides look a little busy though.

APA Citation Example of PowerPoint Slide




This example is technically for citing an image within your paper. Although it is not technically correct, it is utilized fairly often and cleaner than the example from above.

Example #2 of APA citation of image

APA Reference Section ExampleReference Section of APA Example

For more information regarding how to cite images in APA (as you would in a paper) see the box below.



Although not technically correct, you could use a combination of these two methods. Because there aren't well defined rules regarding citing images within a PowerPoint presentation you do have some flexibility. Just make sure that you are being consistent.  Here's an example of a combination of the two methods from above.

Other citation method example

Other citation method example reference section



Another option, which again, is not technically correct is to have the full APA citation under your image

APA citation example #4


Sigh. Who doesn't want a million options when trying to create a presentation?

Below is how I've been doing my slides recently. It is NOT technically correct but I think it looks good visually. You can use some sort of variation of this method (with regard to the caption underneath the image). You may also want to number your slides.

Note: If you do use this method I'd suggest mentioning at the beginning of your presentation that image citations will be on a slide at the end.


Not standard APA text

Not actually proper APA



Again, not technically correct but you could put a shortened citation directly under the image. Just remember to be consistent!

Palouse Country from Steptoe Butte, Steptoe, Washington, circa 1970
Ross Hall Studio (1970). Palouse country from Steptoe Butte, Steptoe, Washington, circa 1970 [Online image], Washington Rural Heritage.


Citing Images (APA Reference Section)

Citing an Image & Using a Reference Section 

Note:How you cite an image is dependent upon where the image is located. For example, an image located in a museum will be cited slightly differently than one found on a website.


Citing an Image from a Museum, Historical Society, etc.

Horticulture students studying tree roots

(Huckle, 1921)

Citation Schematic:

Last Name, Initials. (Date created). Image title italicized [Media type] Name of museum, City, State

     Abbreviation, Country of museum. URL


Example where image has an author:

Huckle, M.S. (1921). Horticulture students studying tree roots [Photograph]. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State

    University, Pullman, WA, United States.


Example where image does not have a specified author:

Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser [Photograph]. The Washington Rural Heritage Collection.


Citing an Image from a Website 

Name of author is known:

Citation Schematic:

Photographer, P. (Year). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Source of image. URL


Luftig, D.M. (2019). Apple trees in Wenatchee [Online image]. Washington State University Libraries.


Name of author is not known:

Citation Schematic:

Title of image [Media type]. (Date created). Title of website. URL


Tree fruit in Washington [Online image]. (1999). Washington Tree Fruit Collective.






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