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Chicago Quick Citation Guide

Quick citation guide for Chicago 17th Edition

In Text Notations and Footnotes/Endnotes

In Text Notations and Footnotes/Endnotes

Citations are listed in notes (footnotes or endnotes) and can be included in a bibliography. If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the note citations can be shortened. For works with no bibliography or a selected list, notes must include full details.

In-Text Citation

  • Footnote/Endnote citation includes a reference number set as superior or superscript; located at the end of a sentence following any punctuation or closing parentheses.
  • Reference numbers begin with 1 and continue consecutively through the entire paper.
  • Notes for tables or illustrations are numbered separately.

Example:
"This," wrote George Templeton Strong, "is what our tailors can do." (In an earlier book he had said quite the opposite.)2

Footnotes

  • Note numbers are full-sized, not superscripted, and at the bottom of each page.
  • Most word-processing software now have a footnoting feature.
  • Footnotes formatting varies by information type (e.g., book or article) and if the footnote is the first citation for a source in the paper (full or long footnote) or a second or subsequent citation of that source (abbreviated or short footnote).  

Endnotes

  • Note numbers are full-sized, not superscripted, and at the end of the paper.
  • Most word-processing software now has an endnote formatting feature.
  • Endnotes formatting varies by information type (e.g., book or article) and if the endnote is the first citation for a source in the paper (full or long endnote) or a second or subsequent citation of that source (abbreviated or short endtnote).

Bibliography/References

Bibliography/References

  • Appears at the end of the work, titled Bibliography or References.
  • Entries are arranged alphabetically by last names of the first author or editor, by the title or a keyword.
  • Titles are displayed with headline capitalization (meaning capitalize all words except articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, for), and short (less than five words) prepositions (e.g., at, by, from).
  • All entries should include hanging indentation for those that spill onto second or second and subsequent lines.
  • To see specific Chicago Notes/Bibliography full bibliographical and footnote/endnote entries by information type, look below...

Books and E-Books

Books and E-books: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | date | title | subtitle | editor, compiler or translator | edition | volume | series title | volume number |  publisher city | publisher name

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Books with one author

Bibliography Example:
Johnson, Laura. The Way Things Were. Boston: Logan Press, 2002.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Laura Johnson, The Way Things Were (Boston: Logan Press, 2002), 14-15.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Johnson, The Way Things Were, 3.

E-Books

  • Include a URL or name of database or e-book provider.
  • Do not include an accessed date for e-Books.

Bibliography Example:
Lumpkin, Leslie. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. Washington, DC: Country Press. 1989. ProQuest Ebrary.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Leslie Lumpkin, Country Singin' Ain't for Me (Washington, DC: Country Press, 1989), 55, ProQuest Ebrary.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Lumpkin, Country Singin' Ain't for Me, 3-4.

Books with two through ten authors

  • List all author names in the order in which they appear on the title page. Only the first name is inverted.
  • Use "and" between the authors names. For three authors, place "and" before the last author.

Bibliography Example:
Lumpkin, Leo R., Craig Simpson, and John Hellsmuth, 3rd eds. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. Washington, DC: Country Press, 1989.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Leo R. Lumpkin, Craig Simpson, and John Hellsmuth, 3rd eds., Country Singin' Ain't for Me (Washington, DC: Country Press, 1989), 15.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Lumpkin, Country Singin', 77-78.

Books with eleven or more authors

  • List the first seven author names followed by "et al.", the first name being the only one inverted

Bibliography Example:
Lumpkin, Leo R., Craig Simpson, Alice Simpson, Melissa Burns, Jackie Lovejoy, Barry Gumble, Sarah Christian, et al. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Country Press. 1989.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Lumpkin et al., Country Singin' Ain't for Me, 3rd ed. (Washington, DC: Country Press, 1989), 52.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Lumpkin et al., Country Singin', 9.

Books with no authors (or only editors)

  • If there are editors, put the names of editors, use the abbreviation "eds."
  • If there are no authors and editors, begin with the title.

Bibliography Example:
Country Singin' Ain't for Me. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Country Press. 1989.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Country Singin' Ain't for Me, 3rd ed., (Washington, DC: Country Press, 1989), 444-45.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Country Singin', 29.

Books with authors and editors

  • Place the author's name first, the abbreviation "ed." follows the title, then put the editors.

Bibliography Example:
Lumpkin, Leslie. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. 3rd ed. Powers, Ron, and Larry Simpson, eds. Washington, DC: Country Press. 1989.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Leslie LumpkinCountry Singin' Ain't for Me, 3rd ed., (Washington, DC: Country Press, 1989), 38.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Lumpkin, Country Singin', 23.

Other reference list entry considerations

  • Include the edition if the work is not the first.
  • Include volume if a multi volume work is referred to as a whole.
  • Include the volume number within a series if the series is numbered.
  • Universally known publication cities such as New York or London can stand alone, if readers might be confused, or the a city with the same name exists, the state may be added with a comma after the city name.
  • If the place of publication is unknown, n.p. may be used before the publisher's name within square brackets.
  • Copyright dates are usually the same as publication dates. If the year of publication is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. in brackets, can be used in place of the year.
  • If the year can be guessed, place the guessed year followed by a question mark (?) within brackets
  • For multiple years, only include the date that is of interest to the reader.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | date | article title | journal title | volume | issue | page numbers | DOI (Digital Object Identifer) | database name | url

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Journal Articles with one author

  • If the journal article cited was electronic and there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source, include it. You can visit crossref.org and doi.org to get DOI information for specific articles. If there is no DOI, provide another URL or database name (e.g., JSTOR). If the article consulted was in print, do not include any online information.
  • Do not include an accessed date for online journal articles.

Bibliography Example:
Skinner, Simon. "Evolution or Intelligent Design: The Menu Model of Elementary Science Instruction." Science Educator 32, no.2 (2005): 75-108. https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Simon Skinner, "Evolution or Intelligent Design: The Menu Model of Elementary Science Instruction," Science Educator 32, no.2 (2005): 84, https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Skinner, "Evolution or Intelligent Design," 98.

 

Bibliography Example:
ScofieldSunashi. "The Building Blocks for Youth Agency: Theories and Methods." Journal of Marriage and Divorce 58 (2009): 2-27. JSTOR.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Sunashi Scofield, "The Building Blocks for Youth Agency: Theories and Methods," Journal of Marriage and Divorce 58 (2009): 14, JSTOR.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Scofield, "The Building Blocks for Youth Agency," 25.

Other reference list entry considerations

Multiple authors

  • The first author's name is inverted, followed by ", and" then the second author's full name - Skinner, Simon, and Bob Tucker.
  • More than two: List first author's name inverted, use ", and" before the last author's name - Skinner, Simon, Bob Tucker, and Lindsey McGibbons.
  • More than 10: List first 7 followed by "et al." - Skinner, Simon, Bob Tucker, Lindsey McGibbons, Roger Crons, Toby Backyarns, Yon Sin, D'Anthony B. Rogers, et al.

Titles

  • Journal article titles are placed in quotes, while journal titles/names are presented in italics. Titles and subtitles are separated by a colon, and the first word of the subtitle is always capitalized.

Dates

  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update.
  • An exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given (e.g., 112 (Spring)).
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April).

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number; place issue numbers in parentheses (e.g., ... Journal of Important Stuff 54 (25)...).
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3...).

Newspapers and Magazines

Newspapers and Magazines: All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | year | article title | newspaper name | month and day of publication | section | edition

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Newspapers and Magazines

Bibliography Example:
Zucker, Harry A. "Where are Today's Leonardo's?" USA Today, June 3, 2009 Editorial section, first edition. https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Harry A. Zucker, "Where are Today's Leonardo's?" USA Today, June 3, 2009 Editorial section, first edition, 2, https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Zucker, "Where are Today's Leonardo's?" 3.

 

Bibliography Example:
Chen, Nancy. "Five Ways to Combat Disease." Newsweek, October 18, 2005. ProQuest Global Newsstream.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Nancy Chen, "Five Ways to Combat Disease," Newsweek, October 18, 2005, ProQuest Global Newsstream.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Chen, "Five Ways to Combat Disease."

 

Bibliography Example:
"Volcanic Lava Destroys Home and Businesses." News York Times, October 3, 1936. http://www.nytimes.com/VolcanicLava/1936database.com.

Full Footnote Example:
1. "Volcanic Lava Destroys Home and Businesses," News York Times, October 3, 1936, 10, http://www.nytimes.com/VolcanicLava/1936database.com.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. "Volcanic Lava Destroys," 10-11.

  • If the author is unknown, the name of the article stands in place of the author's name.
  • Page numbers are used for in-text citations, but not in the bibliography/reference entries.
  • If consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database.

Internet and Other Electronic Sources

Internet and Other Electronic Sources: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | year | title | subtitle | site | url | date accessed

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Websites / Webpages

  • It is often not necessary to formally cite websites with a parenthetical citation (author date) or bibliography entry.  In these cases, do however mention the name of the website and the date you accessed it.  For example, "On May 23, 2018, the Apple Corporation website stated..."
  • If the cite does not include a date of creation or revision, use n.d. for "no date" and include an accessed date

Bibliography Example:
Google. “Privacy Policies.” Last modified April 29, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Google, “Privacy Policies,” last modified April 29, 2017, https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Google, “Privacy Policy.”

 

Bibliography Example:
White House. “Budget & Spending.” Accessed June 27, 2018. n.d. https://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/budget-spending/.

Full Footnote Example:
1. White House, “Budget & Spending,” accessed June 27, 2018, n.d., https://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/budget-spending/.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. White House, “Budget & Spending.”

DVDs / CDs

  • Scenes (individually accessible in DVDs) are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.

Bibliography Example:
Cleese, James, Tara Gilliam, Yoshi Wagnishi, Thomas Jones and Margaret Palin. 2001. "Commentaries." Disc 2. The Long Road Home, special ed. DVD. Directed by Tara Gilliam and Thomas Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.

Full Footnote Example:
1. James Cleese et al., "Commentaries," Disc 2, The Long Road Home, special ed. DVD, directed by Tara Gilliam and Thomas Jones, Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2001.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Cleese, "Commentaries."

Dissertations and Theses

Dissertations and Theses: All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

author | title | type of content | academic institution | date

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented.

 

  • Type of content is usually MFA, PhD, etc.

Bibliography Example:
Dinsmore, Brad Adam. "Conversations with Iraqi Immigrants" PhD diss., Washington State University, 2009.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Brad Adam Dinsmore, "Conversations with Iraqi Immigrants" (PhD diss., Washington State University, 2009), 99-100.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Dinsmore, "Conversations," 24.

Patents

Patents: All possible citation elements in order of appearance:

creator name | year of filing | year of filing | patent title | edition | country code | patent number | filed date | issued date

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented.

 

Bibliography Example:
Kurzweil, Randall Chris. "Generating Visual Art." US Patent 7,098,917, filed January 22, 2002, and issued August 29, 2006.

Full Footnote Example:
1. Randall Chris Kurzweil, "Generating Visual Art," (US Patent 7,098,917, filed January 22, 2002, and issued August 29, 2006), 99-100.

Abbreviated Footnote Example:
2. Kurzweil, "Visual Art," 24.

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