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Chicago Quick Citation Guide

Quick citation guide for Chicago 17th Edition

Bibliography/References and In Text Citations

Bibliography/References and In Text Citations

 

Bibliography or references

  • Entries in the list are ordered alphabetically by author's last name, or if no author is given, by the title or a keyword.
  • There MUST be an entry in the reference list for every source cited at least once in the text.

In text citations

Single author

  • List the author's last name followed by the year and page number (or other locator); do not include page numbers for non-paginated sources.

Example:

Video games can provide health benefits to the sick (Haugen 2008, 155).

Multiple works published by the same author in different years

  • List the author and the years in chronological sequence.

Example:
Studies of gamer's at play (Flanders 1970, 1975) have shown that...

Multiple authors

  • For 2 authors, list both names in the in-text reference, separated by "and."

Example:
...and the most recent work on Tetris (Sareth and Nukem 2001, 23-4).

  • For more than 2 authors, list the first author followed by "et al." or "and others" and the year.

Example:
... but later studies (Haugen et al. 2008) determined that...

 
... but in later studies by Haugen and others (2008) it was determined that... fill time (299).

Corporations or organizations as authors

  • List the initial letter of each part of name or readily recognizable abbreviation and the year.

Example:

The landmark report on nuclear power (SNPP 1979) was...

Books and E-Books

Books and E-Books: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | date | title | subtitle | editor, compiler or translator | edition | volume | series title | volume number |  publisher city | publisher name

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Books with one author

Example:
Johnson, Laura. 2002. The Way Things Were. Boston: Logan Press.

E-Books

  • Include a URL or name of database or e-book provider.
  • Do not include an accessed date for e-Books.

Examples:
Lumpkin, Leslie. 1989. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. Washington, DC: Country Press. ProQuest Ebrary.

LumpkinLeslie. 1989. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. Washington, DC: Country Press. http://sop.wsu.edu/countrysinginaintforme.html.

Books with two through ten authors

  • List all author names in the order in which they appear on the title page. Only the first name is inverted.
  • Use "and" between the authors names. For three authors, place "and" before the last author.

Example:
Lumpkin, Leo R., Craig Simpson, and John Hellsmuth, 3rd eds. 1989. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Books with eleven or more authors

  • List the first seven author names followed by "et al.", the first name being the only one inverted.

Example:
Lumpkin, Leo R., Craig Simpson, Alice Simpson, Melissa Burns, Jackie Lovejoy, Barry Gumble, Sarah Christian, et al. 1989. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Books with no authors (or only editors)

  • If there are editors, put the names of editors, "a comma (,) followed by the abbreviation "eds."
  • If there are no authors and editors, begin with the title.

Examples:
Simpson, Barney, and Nicole Callahan, eds. 1989. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Country Singin' Ain't for Me. 3rd Ed. 1989. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Books with authors and editors

  • Place the author's name first, the abbreviation "ed." follows the title, then put the editors.

Example:
Lumpkin, Leslie. 1989. Country Singin' Ain't for Me. 3rd ed. Powers, Ron, and Larry Simpson, eds. Washington, DC: Country Press.

Other reference list entry considerations

  • Include the edition if the work is not the first.
  • Include volume if a multi volume work is referred to as a whole.
  • Include the volume number within a series if the series is numbered.
  • Universally known publication cities such as New York or London can stand alone, if readers might be confused, or the a city with the same name exists, the state may be added with a comma after the city name.
  • If the place of publication is unknown, n.p. may be used before the publisher's name within square brackets.
  • Copyright dates are usually the same as publication dates. If the year of publication is unknown, the abbreviation n.d. in brackets, can be used in place of the year.
  • If the year can be guessed, place the guessed year followed by a question mark (?) within brackets.
  • For multiple years, only include the date that is of interest to the reader.

Journal Articles

Journal Articles: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | date | article title | journal title | volume | issue | page numbers | DOI (Digital Object Identifier) | database name | url

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Journal articles with one author

  • If the journal article cited was electronic and there is a digital object identifier (DOI) for the source, include it. If there is no DOI, provide another URL or database name (e.g., JSTOR).  You can visit crossref.org and doi.org to get DOI information for specific articles.  If the article consulted was in print, do not include any online information.
  • Do not include an accessed date for online journal articles.

Examples:
Skinner, Simon. 2005. "Evolution or Intelligent Design: The Menu Model of Elementary Science Instruction." Science Educator 32(2) 75-108. https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Scofield, Sunashi. 2009. "The Building Blocks for Youth Agency: Theories and Methods." Journal of Marriage and Family 58 2-27. JSTOR.

Other reference list entry considerations

Multiple authors

  • The first author's name is inverted, followed by ", and" then the second author's full name - Skinner, Simon, and Bob Tucker.
  • More than two: List first author's name inverted, use ", and" before the last author's name - Skinner, Simon, Bob Tucker, and Lindsey McGibbons.
  • More than 10: List the first 7 followed by "et al." - Skinner, Simon, Bob Tucker, Lindsey McGibbons, Roger Crons, Toby Backyarns, Yon Sin, D'Anthony B. Rogers, et al.

Titles

  • Journal article titles are placed in quotes, while journal titles/names are presented in italics. Titles and subtitles are separated by a colon, and the first word of the subtitle is always capitalized.

Dates

  • The month and day need to be included if there is no volume, issue numbers or dates of update.
  • An exact date, a month, or a season, appears in parentheses after the volume or or issue number. Seasons are capitalized when standing in lieu of a month or an issue number. Neither month nor season is necessary when the issue number is given (e.g., 112 (Spring)).
  • For a span of months, use a hyphen (e.g., March-April).

Volumes and issues

  • The volume number follows the journal title without intervening punctuation and is not in italics. Issue number follows volume number; place issue numbers in parentheses (e.g., ... Journal of Important Stuff 54 (25)...).
  • Write both volumes and issues numbers in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3...).

Newspapers and Magazines

Newspapers and Magazines: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | year | article title | newspaper name | month and day of publication | section | edition

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Newspapers and Magazines

Example:
Zucker, Harry A. 2009. "Where are Today's Leonardo's?" USA Today, June 3, 2009 Editorial section, first edition. https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Example:
Chen, Nancy. 2005. "Five Ways to Combat Disease." Newsweek, October 18, 2005. ProQuest Global Newsstream.

Example:
"Volcanic Lava Destroys Home and Businesses." News York Times, October 3, 1936. http://www.nytimes.com/VolcanicLava/1936database.com.

  • If the author is unknown, the name of the article stands in place of the author's name.
  • Page numbers are used for in-text citations, but not in the reference entries.
  • If consulted online, include a URL or the name of the database.
  • Repeat the year for sources that are also cited by month and day.

Internet and Other Electronic Sources

Internet and Other Electronic Resources: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | year | title | subtitle | site | url | date accessed

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Websites / Webpages

  • It is often not necessary to formally cite websites with a parenthetical citation (author date) or bibliography entry.  In these cases, do however mention the name of the website and the date you accessed it.  For example, "On May 23, 2018, the Apple Corporation website stated..."
  • If the cite does not include a date of creation or revision, use n.d. for "no date" and include an accessed date.

Examples:
Google. 2018. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified April 29, 2017. https://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

White House. n.d. “Budget & Spending.” Accessed June 27, 2018. https://www.whitehouse.gov/issues/budget-spending/.

DVDs / CDs

  • Scenes (individually accessible in DVDs) are treated as chapters and cited by title or by number.

Example:
Cleese, James, Tara Gilliam, Yoshi Wagnishi, Thomas Jones and Margaret Palin. 2001. "Commentaries." Disc 2. The Long Road Home, special ed. DVD. Directed by Tara Gilliam and Thomas Jones. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment.

Dissertations and Theses

Dissertations and Theses: All possible citation elements in order of appearance

author | date | title | content type (MFA, PhD) | academic institution

** It is important to note that throughout this Chicago Style guide only the color-coded examples have the proper hanging indentation for reference/bibliography entries. Hanging indentation means the second and any subsequent lines of the citation are indented. 

 

Dissertations and Theses

Examples:
Dinsmore, Bonny A. 2009. "Conversations with Iraqi Immigrants." MFA. Washington State University.

Ratz, Kurtis. 2013. “Architectural Designs for Modern Homes in Southern Germany.” PhD diss., University of Montana.

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