APA journals use the author-date method of citation.
Surname of the author (not including suffix such as Jr.) and the year of the publication are inserted at the appropriate point.
Elements of a parenthetical reference include the last name of the author, and year the work was published. If quoting directly the page number (page is abbreviated as "p." / multiple pages as "pp.") or paragraph number is also required.
See the boxes below for more specific information.
When directly quoting, APA requires a parenthetical including the three components of author, year, page number (page abbreviated as "p.") [Note: for works that do not use pagination list the paragraph number].
"You may remember me from such hits as Christmas Ape and Christmas Ape Goes to Summer Camp" (McClure, 1998, p.352).
Quimby (2000) compared monorail systems
In a recent study of monorail systems (Quimby, 2000)
In 2000 Quimby compared monorail systems
As Smithers and Skinner (1993) demonstrated
...as has been shown (Nahasapeemapetilon & Ormand, 1989)
Hibbert, Rivera, Monroe, Foster, Zweig, and Colossus (1994) found
[Use as first citation in the text]
Hibbert et al. (1994) found
[Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter.]
Hibbert et al. found
[Omit year from subsequent citation after first citation within a paragraph.]
Wiggum et al. (1983) found
[First in a paragraph citation]
Wiggum et al. also found
[Omit the year after the first citation in the same paragraph]
If two references with the same year shorten to the same form, cite the surnames of the first authors and of as many of the subsequent authors as necessary to distinguish the two references, followed by a comma and et al.
If there are two resources with the author:
Meyers, Bobbins, & Powers, 1994, and Meyers, Powers, Bobbins, & Groening, 1994
both shorten to Meyers et al., 1994
Bradley, Ramirez, and Soo (1994) and Bradley, Soo, et al. (1994)
("Springfield's Elite", 2008)