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AGRI 587

AGRI 587 Research and Extension Communications in Agriculture (Library Research Guide)

About ASA/CSSA/SSSA Citation Style

As of 2021, ASA/CSSA/SSSA now follow the APA citation style.

Unless otherwise noted, all images on this page come from the ASA/CSA/SSSA style manual:

Citation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manualCitation of ASA/CSSA/SSSA Style manual

In-Text Citations

In-text citations are citations that occur within the body of your paper.  ASA/CSSA/SSSA use the author-year notation system. Below are some examples.

Single author

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos, 2015).

Ramos (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

Two authors

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos and Wilson, 2015).

Ramos and Wilson (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

More than two authors 

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos et al., 2015).

Ramos et al. (2015) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

More than two studies cited

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos and Wilson, 2015; Martinez, 2019).

Ramos and Wilson (2015) and Martinez (2019) both found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.

If citing a specific page instead instead of an entire chapter or article

There has been at least 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history (Ramos, 2015, p. 42).

Ramos (2015, p. 42) found 532 volcanic eruptions in recorded history.


Creating a Reference List

The reference list (or reference section) of your paper contains a list of all of the resources that you cited. Here's some things to keep in mind when creating a reference list:

  • Arrange the list alphabetically by the last name of authors.
    • In the reference list itself, give the names of all authors. Optionally, if the paper has more than six authors, the rest may be abbreviated to 'et al.'
  • Two or more articles by the same author (or authors) are listed chronologically.


Citing Journals

The layout of a journal citation is as follow:

ASA/CSSA/SSSA diagram of journal citation


Example of journal citations 

Citing Journals in ASA/CSA/SSSA


Citing Magazine Articles:

ASA citation of magazine


Citing Books, Bulletins, and Reports:

ASA diagram of book citation

Example of Book, Bulletin, and Report Citation:

ASA book citation example


Citing Chapters Within Books, Bulletins, and Reports:

Citing book chapters within ASA/CSSA/SSSA

Example of Citing Individual Chapters within an Edited  Book

Citing a chapter within a book

Citing Images in PowerPoint Slides (APA Images as Figures)

APA does not have an explicit way to cite images in presentation software such as PowerPoint. If you are following strict APA guidelines, you would treat an image like a figure.


To learn more about APA and how to cite figures see the following:

- WSU Libraries APA Quick Cite Guide

- The George Washington University Libraries' APA Citation Style, 7th edition: Figures


Example of how to cite an image in APA within your presentation:

Figure 1

Olives growing on a tree overhead near the site of Troy

Olives growing on a tree overhead near the site of Troy.

Note: From Olives, by P. Brians, 2002, Washington State University Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections ( Copyright 2002 by P. Brians.


Other Options

Although the above example strictly follows APA/SSSA/ASA you don't see it in practice much. There are several ways you can cite an image within your slides. That said, follow these considerations if you are not using the strict APA image citation style on your slides:

- Ask your instructor if they have a format that they want you to use.

- Be consistent. Make sure all your citations are the same.

- Make sure the relevant information is easy to find. At the bare minimum, you should provide, under the image, an author and a link to find more information about the image. I prefer to provide information about the author, year, title, and where to find the image. For example, see the citation under the image on the opening page of this guide.

Citing Images (APA Reference Section)

Citing an Image & Using a Reference Section 


Cite the image as in the example below:

Horticulture students studying tree roots

(Huckle, 1921)


In your reference section, write:

Last Name, Initials. (Date created). Image title italicized [Media type] Name of museum, City, State

     Abbreviation, Country of museum. URL


Huckle, M.S. (1921). Horticulture students studying tree roots. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State

    University, Pullman, WA, United 



Citing an Image from a Website - Author is Not Listed

 Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser, Washington

(Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser, Washington, 1959)


Title of image [Media type]. (Date created). Title of website. URL


 Presentation at Feeder's Day, Prosser. (1959). [Photograph]. The Washington Rural Heritage Collection. 





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