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HIST 469 Crime and Punishment in Early Modern Europe

Where do I go for help?

Citations can be confusing, and there are so many types. Even librarians look up how to write them, so you're not alone. It's okay to ask for help! You can email me directly, or use any of our help services (including 24/7 live chat).

PLEASE NOTE: Search It and many of the databases provide a "Citation" link that will create a citation for you. Additionally, there are numerous citation generators available. HOWEVER - these are not always accurate. Do not rely on them! It's totally fine to use it as a template (I do!), but then you still must check all of the punctuation and capitalization, and that all elements are there.

Chicago-Style Guides

As you have likely recalled from previous courses, you MUST cite where you got your information from. This includes images. That is, any outside information that you use in your writing must be noted in your paper. This demonstrates that you are giving credit to the individuals that have done the work, and also allows the reader to use your citations to verify your information or follow-up if they'd like more. Below are some links to guides that we use often at WSU Libraries.

Citing Images

You will want to provide captions and citations for your images; especially in history, images can be extremely important pieces of evidence... or data! Some things to remember:

  • Label them Fig. 1, Fig. 2 in the caption, and in parenthesis after their mention in the text.
  • Place the image as close to the text mention as possible (same page or a surrounding page).

It is a bit of an art, but you can roughly fill in the blanks:

Fig. 1. [TYPE OF SOURCE AND DESCRIPTION.] Created by [CREATOR]. [YEAR]. From [PLACE YOU GOT IT FROM]. [WEBSITE]

Here is an example from Carleton College:

Fig. 1. Poster for performer Chas. H. Kabrich billed as the only "Bike-Chute Aeronaut". Created by Donaldson Litho. Co. [c1896]. From Library of Congress Prints and Drawings Online Catalog. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2014635895/.

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